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Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery

What is Metabolic and bariatric surgery

Metabolic surgery encompasses a range of surgical procedures aimed at treating metabolic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes. These surgeries can significantly improve the management of diabetes by altering the body's energy balance and metabolism. Metabolic syndrome, on the other hand, is a combination of metabolic disorders that often occur together. This syndrome is primarily caused by factors such as obesity, lack of physical activity, advancing age, and genetic predisposition. Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at a heightened risk of developing conditions like diabetes (characterized by high blood sugar levels), hypertension (high blood pressure), and dyslipidemia (abnormal cholesterol and lipid levels), which can lead to heart disease and stroke.

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Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome

The risk of metabolic syndrome is linked to excessive weight, obesity, and low physical activity. Insulin resistance, often seen in overweight individuals, is a key risk factor, leading to ineffective insulin use and increased blood sugar levels. which may include:

  1. Fatigue and Inability to focus.

  2. The browning of folds of skin around the neck, armpits, etc..

  3. High blood pressure Low HDL cholesterol High triglyceride levels High fasting glucose levels.

  4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  5. Central obesity (apple-shaped obesity) 0.90 (male) > 0.80 (female).

  6. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (in women) or erectile dysfunction (in men)

Generally, a person with metabolic syndrome has double the risk of heart disease and five times the risk of diabetes compared to someone without it.

Causes of Metabolic and Bariatric

Metabolic and bariatric surgery is primarily performed to address obesity and its related health complications. The causes leading to the need for this type of surgery typically include:

  1. Obesity or Overweight: This is the primary cause for considering metabolic and bariatric surgery. It's usually recommended for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or higher, or those with a BMI of 35-39.9 accompanied by serious weight-related health issues.

  2. Ineffectiveness of Traditional Weight Loss Methods: Surgery is often considered when traditional methods like diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes have failed to produce significant or sustained weight loss.

  3. Risk of Developing Metabolic Disorders: In individuals with a high risk of developing metabolic disorders due to their weight, surgery can be a preventive measure.

  4. Psychological Factors: Mental health issues related to obesity, such as depression or anxiety, can also be a contributing factor for considering surgery.

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Treatment

Metabolic and bariatric surgery is done using one of two methods:

  • Minimally invasive surgery

  • Open abdominal surgery

Minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopy and robotic-assisted procedures, are commonly used in metabolic and bariatric surgery. Laparoscopy involves a camera-tipped tube inserted through a small incision near the navel, along with other instruments through additional small incisions. Robotic-assisted surgery uses robotic arms to manipulate these instruments. Traditional open surgery, involving a long abdominal incision, is less common now. These minimally invasive methods typically lead to less pain and quicker recovery compared to open surgery.

Metabolic and bariatric surgery may involve:

  • Bariatric surgery often involves reducing stomach size and may include bypassing a section of the small intestine, as seen in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure.

  • Endoscopic procedures for weight loss include techniques like stomach balloon placement.

To qualify for surgery, people also need to do the following:

  • Understand the risks and outcomes of metabolic and bariatric surgery.

  • Stay committed to post-surgery diet and lifestyle changes.

  • Have tried other methods of losing weight

  • Be physically and mentally able to undergo surgery

FAQs around Metabolic and Bariatric

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